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You are likely to be more successful if you use terms from the thesaurus medicine for sore throat order lotensin online pills, so check these out in advance hair treatment order discount lotensin on-line. Conversely treatment strep throat order generic lotensin, too narrow a term may generate only a few or even no references at all. Leave out function words like ‘the’, ‘and’ and ‘a’ as these will not be recognised as valid search terms. For example, the database may recognise the term ‘adverse effects’ rather than ‘side effects’. This will find articles and books that have one, two or more of the terms. This will only search for articles that have all of the terms connected by ‘AND’. At the end of your search, save the references you have retrieved, either on disk or as a print-out. Effective reading Your search will have highlighted some useful books or articles to read. You now need to make sure that you are effective in selecting the pertinent information from these sources. Start by taking a few minutes to get to know the material: For books find out: ° How is the book arranged? Get a general idea of the topics by skimming the headings, introductions and summaries. Read the author description to find out about his or her background and experience. Make your reading purposeful by thinking of questions that you would like the text to answer. This will help you select relevant information rather than making a précis of a whole chapter or article. Keep referring back to your questions so you only select the information you need to help answer your queries. Take time out to reflect on what you are reading and the information you have noted. Does it con­ 132 WRITING SKILLS IN PRACTICE firm or contradict your views? As well as reflecting on your reading, you also need to review your progress at regular intervals. Critically appraising the information It is important that you develop the skills to appraise the material you are reading. Make a note of any material that is fresh or additional to what you know already. Use the following checklist when appraising research papers: Literature review q Is the literature chosen for review relevant to the research question? Writing an introduction The reader, like the listener in a conversation, needs some opening state­ ments to introduce him or her to the forthcoming topic. The content of this introduction will vary between different types of written composition – so the introduction to an essay will differ from that of a research project. A good introduction will arouse the interest of the reader and make him or her want to read further. It is this element of an introductory para­ graph that is the most difficult to perfect. Devices such as quotes, exam­ ples, questions or controversial statements might be used to create an original and interesting start to a composition. In general: ° Avoid overwhelming the reader with too many themes in the introduction. Writing explanations Explanations are used to: ° give information ° clarify ° provide reasons. It is useful to start by phrasing your explanation as a what, how or why question: ° What is an erythrocyte?

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Your seniors will always question you in theatre on your anatomy and it pays to read up the night before symptoms cervical cancer order discount lotensin online. Do this every time and not only will you impress your boss symptoms bladder infection purchase 5 mg lotensin overnight delivery,but you will accel- erate your anatomical and surgical knowledge treatment statistics lotensin 10mg generic. If you feel the timing is not appropriate then wait until after the operation and then ask (I often do this – it shows maturity and an under- standing that the surgeon is concentrating). The Operating Theatre 69 Don’ts 1 Engage in conversation during emergencies. Your seniors are not out to get you and there will be a good reason that you may not understand. You are within your rights to ask for an explanation after the operation. This is actually a good way to improve your surgical understanding as long as you take the correct approach. This contaminates theatre floors and means that the nursing staff will have to clean them again. The purpose of a mask is to prevent droplets from your mouth from being projected forward. If you turn your head to sneeze you will fire your germs straight into the wound. The following are the departments commonly dealt with by all house officers: G haematology G biochemistry G microbiology G transfusion G virology G histopathology All junior doctors should have a list of the daytime and on-call telephone numbers of each of these departments which will save hours on the telephone to the switchboard in the middle of the night. Just like any other department there is a hierarchy of seni- ority in these departments and a consultant who works in conjunction with the chief technician usually heads each one. You can imagine that each patient in hospital has on average one blood test a day and perhaps one body fluid examination every three or four days (for example a mid-stream urine or wound swab). If the hospital has 1000 beds you can imagine how busy these departments are. For run of the mill non-urgent investigations there is no need to discuss requests, unless you are contacted by the laboratory. However, if you need to request an unusual or urgent investigation then telephoning the department is not only courteous, but it will ensure that the test is actually performed. This is particularly important outside normal working hours when samples are often only picked up from the drop box (where the porters or vac- uum chutes leave them) if the technician is telephoned in advance. When speaking to departments always ensure that you are talking to the relevant person at the start of the conversation and then explain your request. There is rarely any problem with requests being accepted unless it is the middle of the night where you will be asked 71 72 What They Didn’t Teach You at Medical School for clinical justification. This is rarely a taxing matter however, and a simple reply usually suffices. One small note that will win you favour is to inform the on-call technician in advance if you know that you will be taking a sample in the middle of the night. This information is invaluable as they will keep the machines running and stick around in the hospital until the sample arrives. In small hospitals the technicians often go home, as there is little work at night and only return to the hospital if bleeped by you. Saving them a journey home and back again will make their life easier and also means that you will get your result faster. Usually you will be waiting up to get the result, so you can see how a one-minute telephone call at 9 p. You will be introduced to them in the first week of your post (supposedly), but quite often the time you start a job is when they are away on holiday. During your‘interview’, which is more like an informal chat, you will be asked what your expectations of the post are and what your career plans are (if you have any). If you have any professional or personal problems that may interfere or are interfering with your job you should discuss them with your tutor. Your tutor will be surprisingly understanding and is there to help you rather than to intimidate or hinder you.

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This design became a prototype for many later prostheses medicine tour purchase lotensin from india, including the femoral component for the total hip replacement in use today medications related to the blood buy discount lotensin 5mg on line. A member of many societies symptoms endometriosis purchase lotensin 5mg with amex, including the American Orthopedic Association and the Cana- dian Orthopedic Association, Dr. Thompson was president of the Russell Hibbs Society in 1950, president of the Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons in 1961, a founding member of the Hip Society, and vice president of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons from 1966 to 1968. An excellent technical surgeon, he personally tutored his residents in the art and skills of surgery. He demanded the highest level of proficiency and would never accept less. Under his direction, the Frederick Roeck THOMPSON size and scope of the orthopedic service grew, 1907–1983 making it one of the most outstanding services and residencies of the hospital. Frederick Roeck Thompson, former director of Although he committed most of his time to the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at St. Thompson was a devoted Luke’s Hospital Center in New York City, died on sportsman with great interest in hunting and April 12, 1983. He approached these James Edwin Thompson, professor of surgery at hobbies with the same enthusiasm as he did his the University of Texas, Frederick was one of professional life, and was particularly interested 332 Who’s Who in Orthopedics in the behavior of wildlife. Anglers Club of New York City, he spent count- During the Second World War he had to leave less hours studying the art of fly-fishing and the hospital; his family were interned, and one son participating in outdoor events with these was executed by the Gestapo because the family organizations. Probably his greatest attribute was an insatiable curiosity and the desire to develop new ideas. This enthusiasm was transferred to the residents he trained, who respected him not only as their teacher, but as a person who supported and cared about their future careers. Friedrich TRENDELENBURG 1844–1924 Friedrich Trendelenburg was born in Berlin, Germany, where his father was a professor of phi- losophy and his mother was a teacher. When his family moved to Glasgow, Jules TINEL Scotland, he continued his studies, and in 1863 1879–1952 began to study anatomy and embryology. Between 1864 and 1866 he studied medicine in Tinel was a French neurologist who wrote an various clinics, finally being granted his medical excellent book on the effects of nerve injuries degree by the University of Berlin. Such an edu- during the First World War, and from it one may cational background was not unusual in those judge how times have changed, for nerve suture days and medical students commonly studied for is hardly mentioned. He had a research interest in various periods at different institutions. After the autonomic system, producing a thick volume serving the required period in the army as a mil- on the subject; he was noted for the ingenuity of itary surgeon, Trendelenburg returned to Berlin his apparatus, which was often constructed of and came under the influence of the greatest Meccano. German surgeon of the period, Bernard Langen- He was born in Rouen, the fifth in a line of dis- beck. His father was professor of today, lasting from 1868 to 1874, Trendelenburg anatomy at Rouen. It was became a surgeon in an important Berlin hospi- when he was mobilized for the war that he found tal. A few years later he became the professor himself in a neurological unit and was able to of surgery in Rostock, Germany. His academic 333 Who’s Who in Orthopedics career flourished and included later appointment make full notes and to write long explanatory to the chairs of surgery at the universities of Bonn letters to doctors. He was an important leader in letters expressing Trethowan’s views on topical German surgery during the last half of the nine- orthopedic conditions (foot anomalies, abnormal- teenth century. He was the founder of the German ities of the back, disorders of the knee and bone Society of Surgeons and became its president. He popularized what has become these is almost to hear the fervent advocacy or known as the Trendelenburg position as an aid condemnation all over again. It is to be hoped that to performing pelvic and lower abdominal pro- this remarkably fine little book, containing the cedures. He raised the possibility of surgically views of one of the greatest, if not always the removing pulmonary emboli of large blood clots, soundest, of teachers will be reproduced. One recalls his outpatient sessions: there was He died of carcinoma of the mandible. His imitations of gaits in various orthopedic conditions can never be for- gotten by any who had the good fortune to be present. He maintained that the object of ortho- pedic surgery could be written on a thumbnail— function.

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