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Gender: It is generally believed that women use more emotion focused coping and that men are more problem focused allergy symptoms 8dpo purchase fml forte 5 ml with amex. For example allergy forecast phoenix az buy fml forte with american express, Stone and Neale (1984) considered coping with daily events and reported that men were more likely to direct action than women allergy shots utah order 5 ml fml forte visa. However, Folkman and Lazarus (1980) and Hamilton and Fagot (1988) found no gender diﬀerences. In contrast they use more emotion focused coping if the problem is perceived as being out of their control (Lazarus and Folkman 1987). Available resources: Coping is inﬂuenced by external resources such as time, money, education, children, family and education (Terry 1994). Poor resources may make people feel that the stressor is less controllable by them resulting in a tendency not to use problem focused coping. Measuring coping The diﬀerent styles of coping have been operationalized in several measures which have described a range of speciﬁc coping strategies. The most commonly used measures are the Ways of Coping checklist (Folkman and Lazarus 1988) and Cope (Carver et al. The coping strategies described by these measures include the following: s Active coping (e. Some of these strategies are clearly problem focused coping such as active coping and planning. For example, positive reframing involves thinking about the problem in a diﬀerent way as a means to alter the emotional response to it. Some strategies can also be considered approach coping such as using emotional support and planning whereas others reﬂect a more avoidance coping style such as denial and substance use. Therefore eﬀective coping can be classiﬁed as that which reduces the stressor and minimizes the negative outcomes. In addition, recent research has shifted the emphasis away from just the absence of illness towards positive outcomes. Much research has addressed the impact of coping on the physiological and self-report dimensions of the stress response. Coping and the stress illness link: Some research indicates that coping styles may moderate the association between stress and illness. For some studies the outcome vari- able has been more psychological in its emphasis and has taken the form of well-being, psychological distress or adjustment. For example, Kneebone and Martin (2003) critic- ally reviewed the research exploring coping in carers of persons with dementia. They examined both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and concluded that problem- solving and acceptance styles of coping seemed to be more eﬀective at reducing stress and distress. In a similar vein, research exploring coping with rheumatoid arthritis sug- gests that active and problem-solving coping are associated with better outcomes whereas passive avoidant coping is associated with poorer outcomes (Manne and Zautra 1992; Young 1992; Newman et al. Similarly, research exploring stress and psoriasis shows that avoidant coping is least useful (e. For example, Holahan and Moos (1986) examined the relationship between the use of avoidance coping, stress and symptoms such as stomach-ache and headaches. The results after one year showed that of those who had experienced stress, those who used avoidance coping had more symptoms than those who use more approach coping strategies. Coping and positive outcomes: Over recent years there has been an increasing recognition that stressful events such as life events and illness may not only result in negative outcomes but may also lead to some positive changes in people lives. This phenomenon has been given a range of names including stress related growth (Park et al. This ﬁnds reﬂection in Taylor’s cognitive adaptation theory (Taylor 1983) and is in line with a new movement called ‘positive psychology’ (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi 2000). Although a new ﬁeld of study, research indicates that coping processes which involve ﬁnding meaning in the stressful event, positive reappraisal and problem focused coping are more associated with positive outcomes (Folkman and Moskowitz 2000). Coping is considered to moderate the stress/illness link and to impact upon the extent of the stressor.
Some of these drugs treat the positive symptoms of schizophrenia allergy medicine better than claritin order fml forte 5 ml visa, and some treat both the positive allergy testing midland tx purchase fml forte amex, negative allergy medicine 24 hour cheap 5 ml fml forte otc, and cognitive symptoms. The discovery of chlorpromazine and its use in clinics has been described as the single greatest advance in psychiatric care, because it has dramatically improved the prognosis of patients in psychiatric hospitals worldwide. Using antipsychotic medications has allowed hundreds of thousands of people to move out of asylums into individual households or community mental health centers, and in many cases to live near-normal lives. Despite their effectiveness, antipsychotics have some negative side effects, including restlessness, muscle spasms, dizziness, and blurred vision. In addition, their long-term use can cause permanent neurological damage, a condition called tardive dyskinesia that causes uncontrollable muscle  movements, usually in the mouth area (National Institute of Mental Health, 2008). Newer antipsychotics treat more symptoms with fewer side effects than older medications do (Casey,  1996). Direct Brain Intervention Therapies In cases of severe disorder it may be desirable to directly influence brain activity through electrical activation of the brain or through brain surgery. When it was first developed, the procedure involved strapping the patient to a table before the electricity was administered. The patient was knocked out by the shock, went into severe convulsions, and awoke later, usually without any memory of what had happened. The patient is first given muscle relaxants and a general anesthesia, and precisely calculated electrical currents are used to achieve the most benefit with the fewest possible risks. Still other biomedical therapies are being developed for people with severe depression that persists over years. One approach involves implanting a device in the chest that stimulates the vagus nerve, a major nerve that descends from the brain stem toward the heart (Corcoran,  Thomas, Phillips, & O‘Keane, 2006; Nemeroff et al. When the vagus nerve is stimulated by the device, it activates brain structures that are less active in severely depressed people. Psychosurgery, that is, surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in the hope of improving disorder, is reserved for the most severe cases. Developed in 1935 by Nobel Prize winner Egas Moniz to treat severe phobias and anxiety, the procedure destroys the connections between the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the brain. The procedure— which was never validated scientifically—left many patients in worse condition than before, subjecting the already suffering patients and their families to further heartbreak (Valenstein,  1986). Perhaps the most notable failure was the lobotomy performed on Rosemary Kennedy, the sister of President John F. There are very few centers that still conduct psychosurgery today, and when such surgeries are performed they are much more limited in nature and calledcingulotomy (Dougherty et al. The ability to more accurately image and localize brain structures using modern neuroimaging techniques suggests that new, more accurate, and more beneficial developments in  psychosurgery may soon be available (Sachdev & Chen, 2009). They do not cure schizophrenia, but they help reduce the positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms, making it easier to live with the disease. The drugs are effective but have severe side effects including dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Would you take an antidepressant or antianxiety medication if you were feeling depressed or anxious? Autonomic and behavioral effects of dextroamphetamine and placebo in normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(11), 1460–1469. The antidepressant quandary—Considering suicide risk when treating adolescent depression. Effect size of lithium, divalproex sodium, and carbamazepine in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Discontinuation of benzodiazepine treatment: Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with panic disorder. Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy: A randomized controlled trial. Vagus nerve stimulation in chronic treatment-resistant depression: Preliminary findings of an open-label study. Great and desperate cures: The rise and decline of psychosurgery and other radical treatments for mental illness. Prospective long-term follow-up of 44 patients who received cingulotomy for treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder.
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