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Associate Professor, University of Massachusetts Medical School
In this pattern pulse pressure amplification order triamterene overnight, three nerve stimuli are delivered at 50 Hz followed by a 700 ms rest period and then by two or three additional stimuli at 50 Hz fetal arrhythmia 36 weeks discount triamterene 75mg overnight delivery. The absence of fade in response to double-burst stimulation implies that clinically significant residual neuromuscular blockade does not exist blood pressure chart by age order triamterene 75 mg with amex. In general, larger muscles (eg, abdominal, trunk, paraspinous, diaphragm) are more resistant to neuromuscular blockade and recover more rapidly than smaller muscles (eg, facial, foot, hand). Assuming that ventilation is adequately maintained, no adverse effects occur with skeletal muscle paralysis. When administration of muscle relaxants is discontinued, recovery of muscles usually occurs in reverse order, with the diaphragm regaining function first. However, subtle evidence of residual muscle paralysis detected using a neuromuscular monitor may last for another hour, increasing the likelihood of adverse outcomes, eg, aspiration and decreased hypoxic drive. In addition to the duration of action, the most important property distinguishing the nondepolarizing relaxants is the time to onset of the blocking effect, which determines how rapidly the patient’s trachea can be intubated. Of the currently available nondepolarizing drugs, rocuronium has the most rapid onset time (60–120 seconds). As paralysis develops rapidly (< 90 seconds), the arm, neck, and leg muscles are initially relaxed followed by the respiratory muscles. As a result of succinylcholine’s rapid hydrolysis by cholinesterase in the plasma (and liver), the duration of neuromuscular block typically lasts less than 10 minutes (Table 27–1). Cardiovascular Effects Vecuronium, cisatracurium, and rocuronium have minimal, if any, cardiovascular effects. The other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (ie, pancuronium and atracurium) produce cardiovascular effects that are mediated by autonomic or histamine receptors (Table 27–3). Tubocurarine and, to a lesser extent, atracurium can produce hypotension as a result of systemic histamine release, and with larger doses, ganglionic blockade may occur with tubocurarine. Pancuronium causes a moderate increase in heart rate and a smaller increase in cardiac output, with little or no change in systemic vascular resistance. Although pancuronium-induced tachycardia is primarily due to a vagolytic action, release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve endings and blockade of neuronal uptake of norepinephrine may be secondary mechanisms. Bronchospasm may be produced by neuromuscular blockers that release histamine (eg, atracurium), but after induction of general anesthesia, insertion of an endotracheal tube is the most common cause of bronchospasm. Succinylcholine can cause cardiac arrhythmias, especially when administered during halothane anesthesia. The drug stimulates autonomic cholinoceptors, including the nicotinic receptors at both sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia and muscarinic receptors in the heart (eg, sinus node). The negative inotropic and chronotropic responses to succinylcholine can be attenuated by administration of an anticholinergic drug (eg, glycopyrrolate, atropine). On the other hand, bradycardia has been repeatedly observed when a second dose of succinylcholine is given less than 5 minutes after the initial dose. This transient bradycardia can be prevented by thiopental, atropine, ganglionic-blocking drugs, and by pretreating with a small dose of a nondepolarizing muscle relaxant (eg, rocuronium). Direct myocardial effects, increased muscarinic stimulation, and ganglionic stimulation contribute to this bradycardic response. Hyperkalemia Patients with burns, nerve damage or neuromuscular disease, closed head injury, and other trauma may develop proliferation of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors. During administration of succinylcholine, potassium is released from muscles, likely due to fasciculations. If the proliferation of extrajunctional receptors is great enough, sufficient potassium may be released to result in cardiac arrest. The exact time course of receptor proliferation is unknown; therefore, it is best to avoid the use of succinylcholine in these cases. Increased Intraocular Pressure Administration of succinylcholine may be associated with the rapid onset of an increase in intraocular pressure (< 60 seconds), peaking at 2–4 minutes, and declining after 5 minutes. The mechanism may involve tonic contraction of myofibrils or transient dilation of ocular choroidal blood vessels. Despite the increase in intraocular pressure, the use of succinylcholine for ophthalmologic operations is not contraindicated unless the anterior chamber is open (“open globe”) due to trauma. Increased Intragastric Pressure In heavily muscled patients, the fasciculations associated with succinylcholine may cause an increase in intragastric pressure ranging from 5 to 40 cm H O, increasing the risk for regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. This2 complication is more likely to occur in patients with delayed gastric emptying (eg, those with diabetes), traumatic injury (eg, an emergency case), esophageal dysfunction, and morbid obesity.
Mitotane is incompletely absorbed from the gas- Procarbazine trointestinal tract after oral administration arteria occipitalis generic 75 mg triamterene mastercard. However hypertension lisinopril buy triamterene 75 mg cheap, Procarbazine (Matulane) may autooxidize sponta- once absorbed causes 0f hypertension generic triamterene 75mg, it tends to accumulate in adipose tissue. Urinary excre- administration, with peak plasma levels achieved after 1 tion accounts for 70% of the procarbazine and its hour. The drug is readily metabolized to form a number metabolites lost during the ﬁrst 24 hours after drug ad- of demethylated metabolites. When originally tested as a single agent in advanced Hexamethylmelamine is useful for the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease, procarbazine produced tumor re- ovarian adenocarcinoma and is frequently combined gression responses that were brief, usually lasting only 1 with cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and doxorubicin in to 3 months. It also has some activity mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone in the against small cell lung cancer. Procarbazine is also used in suppression and a peripheral neuropathy also may various combination chemotherapy protocols for non- occur. Limited antitumor effects Cisplatin have been observed against multiple myeloma, melanoma, and non–oat cell lung cancers. Cisplatin (Platinol) is an inorganic coordination com- The major side effects associated with procarbazine plex with a broad range of antitumor activity. It is espe- therapy are nausea and vomiting, leukopenia, and throm- cially useful in the treatment of testicular and ovarian bocytopenia. Cisplatin also orubicin in multidrug-resistant cells and in patients who binds extensively to proteins. Mitoxantrone is active against breast carcinomas, Cisplatin shows biphasic plasma decay with a distri- leukemias, and lymphomas. Its antitumor efﬁcacy in pa- bution phase half-life of 25 to 49 minutes and an elimi- tients with breast cancer is slightly lower than that of nation half-life of 2 to 4 days. Its major toxicity is myelosuppression; mu- drug is bound to plasma proteins, and binding may ap- cositis and diarrhea also may occur. Cisplatin does duces less nausea, alopecia, and cardiac toxicity than not cross the blood-brain barrier. Cisplatin also shows some activity against carci- Levamisole nomas of the head and neck, bladder, cervix, prostate, and lung. Levamisole (Ergamisol) is an antiparasitic drug that has Renal toxicity is the major potential toxicity of been found to enhance T-cell function and cellular im- cisplatin. The drug improves survival of patients with re- pany cisplatin administration may necessitate hospital- sected colorectal cancers when combined with 5-ﬂuo- ization. Cisplatin has mild bone marrow toxicity, yield- rouracil; the mechanism of this interaction is not ing both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Levamisole does not have antitumor activity common and may require transfusions of red blood against established or metastatic cancer and has not cells. Anaphylactic allergic reactions have been de- been found useful in the adjuvant therapy of cancers scribed. Other reported tox- The major adverse effects of levamisole are nausea icities include peripheral neuropathies with paresthe- and anorexia. Its product derived from the interferon alfa-2b gene of hu- plasma half-life is 3 to 5 hours, and it has no signiﬁcant man white blood cells. Renal excretion is the major route of tion involves binding to a plasma membrane receptor drug elimination. Its serum half-life is Despite its lower chemical reactivity, carboplatin 2 to 3 hours after parenteral administration. How- are resistant to cisplatin are cross-resistant to carbo- ever, it has minimal antitumor activity in most human platin. Remissions lasting a few months have been ob- The major advantage of carboplatin over cisplatin is served in 10 to 20% of patients with lymphomas, multi- a markedly reduced risk of toxicity to the kidneys, pe- ple myeloma, melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and ripheral nerves, and hearing; additionally, it produces ovarian carcinoma. It is, however, more myelo- The adverse effects of interferon alfa-2b include fever suppressive than cisplatin. Other adverse effects include and a ﬂulike syndrome of muscle ache, fatigue, headache, anemia, abnormal liver function tests, and occasional al- anorexia, and nausea.
Twelve members of Parliament took evidence from up to 100 organisations and individuals orally and/or in writing prehypertension in your 20s discount triamterene 75 mg on-line. If things go wrong Successful therapy blood pressure levels low order triamterene amex, especially if it is long term heart attack effects buy triamterene without prescription, comprises a doctors must be prepared to defend what they did or, great deal more than choosing a standard medicine. Courts to be overlooked (by doctors), for doctors prefer to dwell of law will look critically at doctors who seek to justify on the deficiencies of their patients rather than of under-information by saying that they feared to confuse themselves. Doctors should know what their patients Patient compliance is the extent to which the actual behav- have read (or not read, as is so often the case) when pa- iour of the patient coincides with medical advice and in- tients express dissatisfaction. To make a diagnosis and necessary’ anxiety or frightens patients suggests that this is to prescribe evidence-based effective treatment is a satisfy- only a marginal issue and it does not justify a general policy ing experience for doctors, but too many assume that pa- of withholding of information. The provision of and in scientific therapeutic trials; but, sad to say, doctors information is a corollary of the patient’s right are too often non-compliant about remedying this. All pa- to self-determination which is a right recognised tients are potential non-compliers;55clinical criteria cannot by law. Failure to provide appropriate information reliably predict good compliance, but non-compliance of- will usually be a breach of duty and if that ten can be predicted. The keeping of appropriate medical records, written at the time of consultation (and which is so fre- quently neglected), is not only good medical practice, it is the best way of ensuring that there is an answer to unjus- 54The term ‘compliance’ meets objection as having undertones of tified allegations, made later, when memory has faded. The words adherence or concordance are preferred by some, the very least, these should include records of warning the latter because it expresses the duality of drug prescribing (by the about treatments that are potentially hazardous. We retain compliance, pointing out that it applies equally to those doctors who neither keep up to date, nor follow prescribing instructions, and to patients who fail, for whatever reason, to keep to a drug regimen. Many Unpleasant disease symptoms, particularly where these studies attest to polypharmacy as an inhibitor of are recurrent and known by previous experience to be compliance, i. But particularly where the in the day (the ideal of one occasion only is often patient does not feel ill, adverse effects are immediate, unattainable). This is not always easy, but its psychological problems, with depression being a achievement is the action of the true professional, and particular problem. Oral instructions alone are not enough; one-third of patients are unable to recount instructions immediately on leaving the consulting Suggestions for doctors to enhance patient room. Lucid and legible labelling of containers is compliance/adherence 56 • Form a non-judgemental alliance or partnership with Cautionary tales. Use fixed-dose combinations, sustained- obstructed blood vessels by exploding inside them (E A Kay) – release (or injectable depot) formulations, or long t½ reference, no doubt, to colloquial use of the term ‘clot-busting drugs’ (for thrombolytics). These are extreme examples; most are more subtle drugs as appropriate; arrange direct observation of each and less detectable. He overheard one of the • See the patient regularly and not so infrequently that doctors expressing doubt about the long-term safety in children of the patient feels the doctor has lost interest. Estimations of compliance come from a variety of mea- • Whether it matters if a dose is missed and what, if sures. Requiring patients to produce containers when they at- • Any interaction with alcohol or other medicines. On the other ing, was that of a 71-year-old man who attempted suicide hand, although patients are known to practise deliberate and was found to have in his home 46 bottles containing deception, to maintain effective deception successfully 10 685 tablets. Analysis of his prescriptions showed that over long periods requires more effort than most patients over a period of 17 months he had been expected to take 60 are likely to make. Monitor- Opportunity cost); such quantities have even caused local ing plasma drug concentrations is possible but to do so problems for safe waste disposal. Factors that are insignificant for compliance are: age (except at extremes), sex, intelligence (except at extreme de- ficiency) and educational level (probably). Doctor compliance is the extent to which the behaviour of In diseases where precise compliance with frequent or com- doctors fulfils their professional duty: plex regimens is important, for example in glaucoma where • not to be ignorant • to adopt new advances when they are sufficiently 59After: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin 1981; 19:73. In economically privileged countries, original or patient-pack to prescribe accurately63 • dispensing is becoming the norm, i. The way the patient is questioned may be all important, have copies of these leaflets so that they can discuss with their e.