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Animal studies show that there are important gene and dietary fat interactions that influence the ten- dency to gain excessive weight on a high fat diet (West and York antifungal cream for diaper rash cheap 250mg grifulvin v with mastercard, 1998) fungus gnats pot plants discount 125mg grifulvin v mastercard. The formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide imperfect fungi definition biology discount grifulvin v 125mg line, resulting from ethanol oxidation, serves as a cofactor for fatty acid biosynthesis (Eisenstein, 1982). Similar to carbohydrate, alcohol consumption creates a shift in postprandial substrate utilization to reduce the oxidation of fatty acids (Schutz, 2000). Significant intake of alcohol (23 percent of energy) can depress fatty acid oxidation to a level equivalent to storing as much as 74 percent as fat (Murgatroyd et al. If the energy derived from alcohol is not utilized, the excess is stored as fat (Suter et al. Interaction of n-6 and n-3 Fatty Acid Metabolism The n-6 and n-3 unsaturated fatty acids are believed to be desaturated and elongated using the same series of desaturase and elongase enzymes (see Figure 8-1). In vitro, the ∆6 desaturase shows clear substrate preference in the following order: α-linolenic acid > linoleic acid > oleic acid (Brenner, 1974). It is not known if these are the ∆6 desaturases that are responsible for metabolism of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid or a different enzyme (Cho et al. An inappropriate ratio may involve too high an intake of either linoleic acid or α-linolenic acid, too little of one fatty acid, or a combination leading to an imbalance between the two series. The provision of preformed carbon chain n-6 and n-3 fatty acids results in rapid incorporation into tissue lipids. Arachidonic acid is important for normal growth in rats (Mohrhauer and Holman, 1963). Later in life, risk of certain diseases may be altered by arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. Consequently, the desirable range of n-6:n-3 fatty acids may differ with life stage. Similarly, stable isotope studies have shown that increased intakes of α-linolenic acid result in decreased conversion of linoleic acid to its metabolites, and the amounts metabolized to longer- chain metabolites is inversely related to the amount oxidized (Vermunt et al. These eicosanoids have been shown to have beneficial and adverse effects in the onset of platelet aggregation, hemodynamics, and coronary vascular tone. More recent, large clinical trials with infants fed formulas providing linoleic acid:α-linolenic acid ratios of 5:1 to 10:1 found no evidence of reduced growth or other problems that could be attributed to decreased arachidonic acid concentrations (Auestad et al. Clark and coworkers (1992) con- cluded that intake ratios less than 4:1 were likely to result in fatty acid profiles markedly different from those from infants fed human milk. Based on the limited studies, the linoleic acid:α-linolenic acid or total n-3:n-6 fatty acids ratios of 5:1 to 10:1, 5:1 to 15:1, and 6:1 to 16:1 have been recommended for infant formulas (Aggett et al. In adult rats it has been determined that a linoleic acid:α-linolenic acid ratio of 8:1 was optimal in maintaining normal-tissue fatty acid con- centrations (Bourre et al. Increasing the intake of linoleic acid from 15 to 30 g/d, with an increase in the linoleic:α-linolenic acid ratio from 8:1 to 30:1, resulted in a 40 to 54 percent decreased conversion of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid to their metabolites in healthy men (Emken et al. For example, low rates of heart disease in Japan, compared with the United States, have been attrib- uted in part to a total n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio of 4:1 (Lands et al. Similarly, an inverse association between the dietary total n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality (Dolecek and Grandits, 1991), as well as between fish intake and coronary heart disease mortality (Kromhout et al. In other studies, however, no differences were found in coronary heart disease risk factors when a diet containing a total n-6:n-3 ratio of 4:1 compared to 1:1 was consumed (Ezaki et al. Hu and coworkers (1999b) observed a weak relationship between the n-6:n-3 ratio and fatal ischemic heart disease since both α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid were inversely related to risk. Desaturation and elongation of trans linoleic and α-linolenic acid isomers containing a double bond at the cis-12 and cis-15 position, respectively, with formation of 20 and 22 carbon chain metabolites that could be incorporated into mem-brane lipids, have also been suggested. In vitro studies and studies with animals fed diets high in trans fatty acids have found evidence of reduced essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acid desaturation (Cook, 1981; Rosenthal and Doloresco, 1984). Studies in term infants found no relation between trans fatty acids and length of gestation, birth weight, or birth length (Elias and Innis, 2001). Similarly, an inverse asso- ciation between plasma phospholipid trans fatty acids and arachidonic acid has been found for children aged 1 to 15 years (Decsi and Koletzko, 1995). The industrial hydrogenation of vegetable oils results in destruction of cis essential n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the formation of trans fatty acids (Valenzuela and Morgado, 1999). It is not clear if differences in dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, rather than inhibition of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid desaturation by trans fatty acids, explains the statistical inverse associations between trans and n-6 and n-3 fatty acids reported in some studies (Craig-Schmidt, 2001). Based on the much greater affinity of the ∆6 desaturase for cis n-6 and n-3 fatty acids than monounsaturated fatty acids (Brenner, 1974; Castuma et al.
Energy expenditure from doubly labeled water: Some funda- mental considerations in humans antifungal exterior paint purchase grifulvin v 250 mg on line. The importance of clinical research: The role of thermo- genesis in human obesity japanese antifungal cream buy generic grifulvin v 125mg line. Human energy metabolism: What we have learned from the doubly labeled water method? Five-day comparison of the doubly labeled water method with respiratory gas exchange antifungal uv light purchase grifulvin v 250mg on-line. Energy expenditure by doubly labeled water: Validation in humans and pro- posed calculation. Effect of endur- ance training on sedentary energy expenditure measured in a respiratory chamber. Energy expenditure of elite female runners measured by respiratory chamber and doubly labeled water. Decreased glucose-induced thermo- genesis after weight loss in obese subjects: A predisposing factor for relapse obesity? The thermic effect of feeding in older men: The importance of the sympathetic nervous system. Comparison of energy expenditure measurements by diet records, energy intake balance, doubly labeled water and room calorimetry. Comparison of doubly labeled water, intake-balance, and direct- and indirect-calorimetry methods for measuring energy expenditure in adult men. Thermic effects of food and exercise in lean and obese men of similar lean body mass. Comparison of thermic effects of constant and relative caloric loads in lean and obese men. Reliability of the measurement of postprandial thermogenesis in men of three levels of body fatness. Overweight, under- weight, and mortality: A prospective study of 48,287 men and women. Body mass index: Its relationship to basal metabolic rates and energy requirements. De novo lipogenesis, lipid kinetics, and whole-body lipid balances in humans after acute alcohol consumption. Basal metabolic rate, body composition and whole-body protein turnover in Indian men with differing nutritional status. No evidence for an ethnic influence on basal metabolism: An examination of data from India and Australia. Changes in adipose tissue volume and distribution during reproduction in Swedish women as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Changes in total body fat during the human repro- ductive cycle as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, body water dilution, and skinfold thickness: A comparison of methods. Effect of lactation on resting metabolic rate and on diet- and work- induced thermogenesis. No substantial reduction of the thermic effect of a meal during pregnancy in well-nourished Dutch women. Covert manipulation of dietary fat and energy density: Effect on substrate flux and food intake in men eating ad libitum. Total, resting, and activity-related energy expenditures are similar in Caucasian and African-American children. Development of bioelectrical impedance analysis prediction equations for body composition with the use of a multicomponent model for use in epidemiologic surveys. Physical activity in relation to energy intake and body fat in 8- and 13-year-old children in Sweden. Effects of alcohol on energy metabolism and body weight regulation: Is alcohol a risk factor for obesity? Age- and menopause-associated variations in body composition and fat distribution in healthy women as mea- sured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old. Effect of a three-day inter- ruption of exercise-training on resting metabolic rate and glucose-induced thermogenesis in training individuals.
Having said all this antifungal cream for hands purchase grifulvin v 250 mg mastercard, physicians across the board have begun using computers in their personal lives anti fungal nail grifulvin v 250mg discount. More than 90 percent of them are online fungus we eat grifulvin v 250mg generic, a markedly higher percentage than among the broad consumer population, although only 56 percent can access the Internet from their ofﬁces. Physicians 71 Physicians have become moderately sophisticated users of modern network computing. Because every dollar of practice expense is viewed as income forgone, physi- cians (even in large group practices) typically starve their businesses for capital, of which computer technology is part. Over time, physi- cians evolved manual clinical and ﬁnancial systems that work for them, but at a price: increasingly costly clerical support to man- age the ﬂow of patient information, scheduling, and, particularly, billing and interaction with health insurers. Replacing these manual systems with computerized systems, furthermore, is time consuming and painful. For group practice managers, one sure way to get ﬁred is to bungle the installation of a computer system and impede the ﬂow of funds to physicians. All too often, business software for medicine has been riddled with bugs and is difﬁcult to connect to other programs or systems on which the software depends. Physicians have a high functional “hurdle” that information systems must surmount for them to be readily accepted and used. Speciﬁcally, they must make practicing medicine demonstrably eas- ier and more ﬁnancially rewarding. According to a recent Harris Interactive study, only 17 percent of primary care physicians and 12 percent of specialists in the United States reported using electronic medical records in 2000. On the primary care side, this compares to 52 percent in New Zealand and 59 percent in the United Kingdom. On the specialty side, utilization is lower: 14 percent of New Zealand specialists and 22 percent of specialists in the United Kingdom (many of whom are salaried employees of Britain’s National Health Service) report using electronic medical records. In New Zealand, by contrast, 52 percent of primary care physicians and 14 percent of specialists reported prescribing drugs electronically. In Britain, 87 percent of primary care physicians and 16 percent of specialists reported electronic prescribing. It will markedly ease the difﬁculties in communication not only between doctors and patients, but also among physicians. A major barrier to adoption of modern business software for physician practices was that it required physicians to make a signiﬁ- cant capital expenditure. Incurring debt of any kind often required physicians to guarantee the debt personally, heaping business debt on top of large mortgages, automobile leases, medical school loans, 74 Digital Medicine and who knows what else. Principally for this reason, only 17 percent of physicians’ ofﬁce medical records are electronic, as of this writing. Most physicians were locked out of electronic commerce in med- icine because of the small scale of their computing needs and the high cost of the dedicated T1 telephone connection (which could range from $1,000 to $5,000 a month). The ﬁrms that physicians can connect to can not only process their medical claims for them but can also support electronic patient records and patient e-mail access to their physicians. All the ofﬁce-based physician needs is a modestly powered desk- top computer, training for the ofﬁce staff, and the patience to re- conﬁgure his or her current billing and record-keeping systems. Physicians 75 Physicians can now purchase computer support for their practices that once only large group practices and hospitals could afford. Eventually, this ofﬁce-based software will be connected electron- ically to the health plans, which will accept, evaluate, and pay physi- cian claims electronically, without the physician’s ofﬁce needing to generate paper bills. Reducing the need to handle paper medical claims will also markedly reduce the administrative costs of health plans. The patients’ portion of the bill will be predetermined, based on their unique health insurance coverage (which is part of each pa- tient’s computer ﬁle). The patients’ share will then be billed to their credit card at the time of service, reducing both accounts receivable and the physician’s ofﬁce clerical costs. Again, although it may take up to a decade, eventually most physicians’ ofﬁces will free themselves from paper records and billing systems. When they make the conversion from paper record and bills to digital systems, physicians will be able to reduce their clerical employment by as much as one-half and rededicate their nursing personnel to clinical, rather than ofﬁce, tasks. Consumers will experience all of this as much easier and more hassle-free service from their physicians’ ofﬁce. They will not be asked to re-register every time they see their physicians because their computer ﬁle will “remember” all the pertinent insurance in- formation from the last visit.